IFR Oral Exam / Checkride Study Guide

Here’s my quick and dirty guide to studying for the Instrument Rating-Airplane oral exam. 

Draw an ILS approach and its components and explain how it operates

Draw a pitot static system and explain how it operates

Draw a vacuum system and explain how it operates

Draw your airplane’s electrical schematics and explain how it operated

Describe human illusions in instrument flight –– Coriolis illusion, the leans, somatogravic illusion, elevator illusion, inversion illusion.

Describe compass errors

Describe pitot/static errors

Describe an airport’s alternate minimums and takeoff minimums

Describe weather charts – area charts, prognostic charts, convective outlook charts, winds aloft forecasts.

Describe the types of VOR checks. For how long is a VOR check valid?

Describe the methods of entering a hold

Describe protocols for lost communications

What are the types of AIRMETS? Describe Airmets Sierra, Tango and Zulu

What are the three types of notams?

Describe the types of in-flight weather advisories that are available?

What are the types of fog?

What are the four basic cloud groups?

What are the stages of a thunderstorm?

Describe the requirements for maintaining currency?

Describe the types of precision vs. nonprecision approaches

Describe each segment of an instrument approach

What is a standard rate turn vs. a half-standard rate turn?

What equipment is required for IFR flight?

What inspections are required for our aircraft?

What are the required ATC readbacks?

What are the mandatory ATC reports?

What are IFR fuel requirements?

Describe reverse sensing.

What airspeed restrictions exist in a holding pattern?

What preflight checks are required for an IFR flight?

Describe the types of icing?

What anti-ice equipment do we have onboard our aircraft?

When is an instrument rating required?

Define: indicated airspeed, calibrated airspeed, true airspeed.

Describe how our gyroscopic instruments work

How many degrees of variation for a single dot represent on a receiver for an ILS approach? For a GPS approach? VOR?

Describe VOR service volumes

How can you tell when a VOR is undergoing maintenance? How do we know it’s operational?

Describe the cone of confusion

When is DME required?

What are the differences between VOR, VORTAC and TACAN?

How does GPS work?

What is WAAS?

What is the useable range of a glideslope?

Describe Obstacle Departure Procedures vs. Standard Instrument Departures

What information should be included in a position report?

Describe a contact approach vs. visual approach

Describe the difference between a Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) and Decision Altitured (DA)

Regaining Night Currency

I’ve logged very little night flying since I earned my private pilot certificate in 2012. A few years ago I experienced a sensory illusion while returning from a local airport after sunset, and the experience startled me enough that I decided to refrain from night flying until I could log more instrument training and build more pronounced situational awareness.

To refresh my night currency I went flying with David, my instrument instructor, over the weekend. We did a quick round robin of local airports to acquire the three full-stop night landings as required by FAR §61.57.

We departed Austin-Bergstrom and made a very short hop of 13nm north to Austin Executive Airport. Prior to starting our approach we briefed obstacles in the area, including a set of unlighted towers south of the airport. We were cleared to land on Runway 13, and I made a slow and methodical approach. My landing wasn’t anything to brag about. We bought fuel at Executive and did a quick walkthrough of the impressive facility, which includes a large media room, a theater and “quiet rooms.”

Next we departed Austin Executive and headed 18nm northwest to Georgetown Municipal Airport. The airport was difficult to see coming from the west, but we tracked a VOR and monitored GPS coordinates that took us directly to the field. I was cleared for a stop-and-go landing on Runway 18 and made a much better landing. I brought the plane to a full stop with about 2,000 feet of runway to spare. We did a short field takeoff and used 10 degrees of flaps for a rapid climb out of the traffic pattern.

From there we headed 29nm south to Austin, where David had me fly the ILS to Austin-Bergstrom’s Runway 17L. We identified the approach fixes using our number 2 VOR. Several miles out, David covered my airspeed indicator and had me fly the glide slope down to the threshold. The simulated failure really demonstrated how useful the localizer, glide slope and power setting are in such a situation. My final landing of the night was much more precise.

Although I’m now legal to carry passengers for night flight, I don’t yet feel especially proficient. I look forward to logging more time in both the simulator and in the aircraft to really hone proficiency.


Instrument Training Update #2: Holding Patterns, DME Arcs

I’ve been spending a couple of nights each week at the airport working with my instructor in the flight school’s simulator. We’ve been practicing flying airways, identifying intersections, using VOR receivers and flying holding patterns. Holds are tricky –– I’m proficient enough while in the hold, but there are a variety of ways to enter the hold depending on where your aircraft is relative to the fix at which you’re holding. Some of it is counterintuitive to me, but I’m making progress.

I enjoy flying DME Arcs –– a procedure for transitioning from the en route segment of flight into the approach segment. Essentially, you enter the approach on a “curve” or arc using the VOR OBS and heading indicator to turn 10 degrees at a time until you cross the initial approach fix. Although a lot of instrument students struggle flying DME Arcs, it comes relatively easy to me.

A couple of weeks ago I bought a used desktop computer on eBay and have been using that as a home simulator. A major benefit of the home sim is practicing instrument scans during different phases of flight. I also like practicing VOR work. The home simulator uses a replica of the Garmin 430, which is a standard GPS device in the Cessna 172s I fly.

Over the next few weeks we’ll be flying Standard Instrument Departures (SIDs) and Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs), then begin flying actual approaches at nearby airports.

Instrument Training Update

I’m continuing to work toward my instrument rating. I’m learning that there is much more to this rating than flying in challenging weather conditions. The rating is about developing discipline, precision and workload management. The little things matter: How you test and tune nav and comm radios, how you organize in-fight documents and how you determine the airworthiness of both your aircraft and navaids along a given route. The training puts a premium on minimizing mental and emotional bandwidth, both of which are precious commodities when flying through more demanding conditions. Eyes and other senses must also be disciplined and trained so not to misinterpret flight dynamics and control changes. Even language becomes more precise: VORs don’t broadcast a signal, they emanate a signal. My instructor is disciplined, and expects the same.  Training consists of ground study, simulator work and flying. I find that talking about concepts, applying those concepts in a simulator and then in actual flight provides a productive framework for deeper learning.

Instrument Training Lesson 1

flight simulator IFRThis weekend I started training toward my instrument rating. My flight instructor is a great teacher and will be a good fit. After about an hour of ground instruction, we logged 1.8 hours in the flight simulator. We did basic attitude instrument flying in the clouds and shot an instrument approach through the rain.